Flash adobe player wiki

Adobe Flash - Wikipedia

Adobe Flash is a [1]multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players. Adobe plans to end support for this platform by 2020.[1] Flash displays text, vector graphics and raster graphics to provide animations, video games and applications. It allows streaming of audio and video, and can capture mouse, keyboard, microphone and camera input.

Artists may produce Flash graphics and animations using Adobe Animate. Software developers may produce applications and video games using Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop, Flash Catalyst, or any text editor when used with the Apache Flex SDK.

End-users can view Flash content via Flash Player (for web browsers), AIR (for desktop or mobile apps) or third-party players such as Scaleform (for video games). Adobe Flash Player (supported on Microsoft Windows, macOS and Linux) enables end-users to view Flash content using web browsers. Adobe Flash Lite enabled viewing Flash content on older smartphones, but has been discontinued and superseded by Adobe AIR.

The ActionScript programming language allows the development of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications and mobile applications. Programmers can implement Flash software using an IDE such as Adobe Animate, Adobe Flash Builder, Adobe Director, FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT. Adobe AIR enables full-featured desktop and mobile applications to be developed with Flash, and published for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch, and Wii U.

Although Flash was previously a dominant platform for online multimedia content, it is slowly being abandoned as Adobe favors a transition to HTML5 and almost completely halted its development due to inherent security flaws and significant resources required to maintain the platform.



In the early 2000s, Flash was widely installed on desktop computers, and was commonly used to display interactive web pages, online games, and to playback video and audio content.[2] In 2005, YouTube was founded by former PayPal employees, and it used Flash Player as a means to display compressed video content on the web.[2]

Between 2000 and 2010, numerous businesses used Flash-based websites to launch new products, or to create interactive company portals.[3] Notable users include Nike, Hewlett-Packard, Nokia, General Electric, World Wildlife Fund, HBO, Cartoon Network and Disney.[3][4] After Adobe introduced hardware-accelerated 3D for Flash (Stage3D), Flash websites saw a growth of 3D content for product demonstrations and virtual tours.[5][6]

In 2007, YouTube offered videos in HTML5 format to support the iPhone and iPad, which did not support Flash Player.[2] After a controversy with Apple, Adobe stopped developing Flash Player for Mobile, focussing its efforts on Adobe AIR applications and HTML5 animation.[2] In 2015, Google introduced Google Swiffy to convert Flash animation to HTML5, a tool Google would use to automatically convert Flash web ads for mobile devices.[7] In 2015, YouTube switched to HTML5 technology on all devices, however it will preserve the Flash-based video player for older web browsers.[8][9][10]


After Flash 5 introduced ActionScript in 2000, developers combined the visual and programming capabilities of Flash to produce interactive experiences and applications for the Web.[11] Such Web-based applications eventually came to be known as "Rich Internet Applications" (RIAs).[11]

In 2004, Macromedia Flex was released, and specifically targeted the application development market.[11] Flex introduced new user interface components, advanced data visualization components, data remoting, and a modern IDE (Flash Builder).[11][12] Flex competed with Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) and Microsoft Silverlight during its tenure.[11] Flex was upgraded to support integration with remote data sources, using AMF, BlazeDS, Adobe LiveCycle, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, and others.[13] As of 2015, Flex applications can be published for desktop platforms using Adobe AIR.[11]

Between 2006 and 2016, the Speedtest.net web service conducted over 9.0 billion speed tests using an RIA built with Adobe Flash.[14][15] In 2016, the service shifted to HTML5 due to the decreasing availability of Adobe Flash Player on PCs.[16]

As of 2016, Web applications and RIAs can be developed with Flash using the ActionScript 3.0 programming language and related tools such as Adobe Flash Builder. Third-party IDEs such as FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT also enable developers to create Flash games and applications, and are generally similar to Microsoft Visual Studio. Flex applications are typically built using Flex frameworks such as PureMVC.[13]

Video games[edit]

Flash video games were popular on the Internet, with portals like Newgrounds dedicated to hosting of Flash-based games. Popular games developed with Flash include Angry Birds, Clash of Clans, FarmVille, AdventureQuest and Machinarium.

Adobe introduced various technologies to help build video games, including Adobe AIR (to release games for desktop or mobile platforms), Adobe Scout (to improve performance), CrossBridge (to convert C++-based games to run in Flash), and Stage3D (to support GPU-accelerated video games). 3D frameworks like Away3D and Flare3D simplified creation of 3D content for Flash.

Adobe AIR allows creation of Flash-based mobile games, which may be published to the Google Play and iTunes app stores.

Flash is also used to build interfaces and HUDs for 3D video games using Scaleform GFx, a technology that renders Flash content within non-Flash video games. Scaleform is supported by more than 10 major video game engines including Unreal Engine, UDK, CryEngine and PhyreEngine, and has been used to provide 3D interfaces for more than 150 major video game titles since its launch in 2003.

Film and animation[edit]

Adobe Animate is one of the common animation programs for low-cost 2D television and commercial animation, in competition with Anime Studio and Toon Boom Animation.

Notable users of Flash include DHX Media Vancouver for productions including Pound Puppies and My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, Fresh TV for Total Drama, Nelvana for 6teen and Clone High, Williams Street for Metalocalypse and Squidbillies, Nickelodeon Animation Studios for Wow! Wow! Wubbzy! El Tigre: The Adventures of Manny Rivera, Danny Phantom, and more.

Flash is less commonly used for feature-length animated films; however, 2009's The Secret of Kells, an Irish film, was animated primarily in Adobe Flash, and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature at the 82nd Academy Awards.

Several popular online series are currently produced in Flash, such as the Emmy Award-winning Off-Mikes, produced by ESPN and Animax Entertainment; Happy Tree Friends; Gotham Girls, produced by Warner Brothers; Crime Time, produced by Future Thought Productions and Homestar Runner produced by Mike and Matt Chapman.

Various third-party software packages designed for traditionally trained cartoonists and animators can publish animations in the SWF format.



The precursor to Flash was a product named SmartSketch, published by FutureWave Software. The company was founded by Charlie Jackson, Jonathan Gay, and Michelle Welsh.[17][18][19][20] SmartSketch was a vector drawing application for pen computers running the PenPoint OS.[21][22] When PenPoint failed in the marketplace, SmartSketch was ported to Microsoft Windows and Mac OS.[18][23]

As the Internet became more popular, FutureWave realized the potential for a vector-based web animation tool that might challenge Macromedia Shockwave technology.[17][18] In 1995, FutureWave modified SmartSketch by adding frame-by-frame animation features and released this new product as FutureSplash Animator on Macintosh and PC.[17][18][24][25]

FutureWave approached Adobe Systems with an offer to sell them FutureSplash in 1995, but Adobe turned down the offer at that time.[18] Microsoft wanted to create an "online TV network" (MSN 2.0) and adopted FutureSplash animated content as a central part of it.[18]Disney Online used FutureSplash animations for their subscription-based service Disney's Daily Blast.[17][18]Fox Broadcasting Company launched The Simpsons using FutureSplash.[18]


In November 1996, FutureSplash was acquired by Macromedia, and Macromedia re-branded and released FutureSplash Animator as Macromedia Flash 1.0. Flash was a two-part system, a graphics and animation editor known as Macromedia Flash, and a player known as Macromedia Flash Player.

FutureSplash Animator was an animation tool originally developed for pen-based computing devices, but due to the small size of the FutureSplash Viewer, it was particularly suited for download over the Web. Macromedia distributed Flash Player as a free browser plugin in order to quickly gain market share. As of 2005, more computers worldwide had the Flash Player installed than any other Web media format, including Java, QuickTime, RealNetworks and Windows Media Player.[26]

Macromedia upgraded the Flash system significantly from 1996 to 1999, adding MovieClips, Actions (the precursor to ActionScript), Alpha transparency, and other features. As Flash matured, Macromedia's focus shifted from marketing it as a graphics and media tool to promoting it as a Web application platform, adding scripting and data access capabilities to the player while attempting to retain its small footprint.

In 2000, the first major version of ActionScript was developed, and released with Flash 5. Actionscript 2.0 was released with Flash MX 2004 and supported object-oriented programming, improved UI components, and other advanced programming features. The last version of Flash released by Macromedia was Flash 8, which focused on graphical upgrades such as filters (blur, drop shadow, etc.), blend modes (similar to Adobe Photoshop), and advanced features for FLV video.


Macromedia was acquired by Adobe Systems in 2005, and the entire Macromedia product line including Flash, Dreamweaver, Director/Shockwave, Fireworks (discontinued) and Authorware is now handled by Adobe.

In 2007, Adobe released Adobe Flash CS3 Professional, the first version released under Adobe, and the ninth major version of Flash. It introduced the ActionScript 3.0 programming language, which supported modern programming practices and enabled business applications to be developed with Flash. Adobe Flex Builder (built on Eclipse) targeted the enterprise application development market, and was also released the same year. Flex Builder included the Flex SDK, a set of components that included charting, advanced UI, and data services (Flex Data Services).

In 2008, Adobe released the historic tenth version of Flash, Adobe Flash CS4. Flash 10 improved animation capabilities within the Flash editor, adding a motion editor panel (similar to Adobe After Effects), inverse kinematics (bones), basic 3D object animation, object-based animation, and other advanced text and graphics features. Flash Player 10 included the first in-built 3D engine (without GPU acceleration), that allowed basic object transformations in 3D space (position, rotation, scaling).

Also in 2008, Adobe released the first version of Adobe Integrated Runtime (later re-branded as Adobe AIR), a runtime engine that replaced Flash Player, and provided additional capabilities to the ActionScript 3.0 language to build desktop and mobile applications. With AIR, developers could access the file system (files & folders), and connected devices (joystick, gamepad, sensors) for the first time.

In 2011, Adobe Flash Player 11 was released, and with it the first version of Stage3D, allowing for GPU-accelerated 3D rendering for Flash applications and games, on desktop platforms such as Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X.[27] Adobe further improved 3D capabilities from 2011 to 2013, adding support for 3D rendering on Android and iOS platforms, alpha-channels, compressed textures, texture atlases, and other features.[28][29] Adobe AIR was upgraded to support 64-bit computers, and developers could now add additional functionality to the AIR runtime using AIR Native Extensions (ANE).

In 2014, Adobe AIR reached a milestone when over 100,000 unique applications were built on AIR, and over 1 billion installations of the same were logged from users across the world (May 2014).[30][31] Adobe AIR was voted as the Best Mobile Application Development product at the Consumer Electronics Show for two consecutive years (CES 2014 and CES 2015).[32][33] In 2016, Adobe renamed Flash Professional, the primary authoring software for Flash content, to Adobe Animate to reflect its growing use for authoring HTML5 content in favour of Flash content.[34]

End of life[edit]

Although Flash was previously a dominant platform for online multimedia content, it is slowly being abandoned as Adobe favors a transition to HTML5 due to inherent security flaws and significant resources required to maintain the platform. Apple restricted the use of Flash on iOS due to concerns that it performed poorly on its mobile devices, had negative impact on battery life, and was deemed unnecessary for online content.[35][36] As a result, it was not adopted by Apple for its smartphone and tablet devices which also contributed to lowering its user base and encouraging wider adoption HTML5 features such as the canvas and video element that can replace Flash without the need for additional plugins. In 2015, Adobe rebranded its Flash authoring environment as Adobe Animate to emphasize its expanded support for HTML5 authoring, and stated that it would "encourage content creators to build with new web standards" rather than using Flash.[37] In July 2017, Adobe announced that it would declare Flash to be end-of-life in 2020, and will cease support, distribution, and security updates to Flash Player.[38] After the announcement, developers have started a petition to turn Flash into an open-source project, leading to controversy.[39]


Flash source files are in the FLA format, and contain graphics and animation, as well as embedded assets such as bitmap images, audio files and FLV video files. The Flash source file format is a proprietary format and Adobe Animate is the only available authoring tool capable of editing such files. Flash source files (.fla) may be compiled into Flash movie files (.swf) using Adobe Animate. Note that FLA files can be edited, but output (.swf) files cannot.


Flash movie files are in the SWF format, traditionally called "ShockWave Flash" movies, "Flash movies", or "Flash applications", usually have a .swf file extension, and may be used in the form of a web page plug-in, strictly "played" in a standalone Flash Player, or incorporated into a self-executing Projector movie (with the .exe extension in Microsoft Windows). Flash Video files[spec 1] have a .flv file extension and are either used from within .swf files or played through a flv-aware player, such as VLC, or QuickTime and Windows Media Player with external codecs added.

The use of vector graphics combined with program code allows Flash files to be smaller—and thus allows streams to use less bandwidth—than the corresponding bitmaps or video clips. For content in a single format (such as just text, video, or audio), other alternatives may provide better performance and consume less CPU power than the corresponding Flash movie, for example when using transparency or making large screen updates such as photographic or text fades.

In addition to a vector-rendering engine, the Flash Player includes a virtual machine called the ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM) for scripting interactivity at run-time, with video, MP3-based audio, and bitmap graphics. As of Flash Player 8, it offers two video codecs: On2 Technologies VP6 and Sorenson Spark, and run-time JPEG, Progressive JPEG, PNG, and GIF capability.


Flash Player 11 introduced a full 3D shader API, called Stage3D, which is fairly similar to WebGL.[40][41] Stage3D enables GPU-accelerated rendering of 3D graphics within Flash games and applications, and has been used to build Angry Birds, and a couple of other notable games.

Various 3D frameworks have been built for Flash using Stage3D, such as Away3D 4,[41]CopperCube,[42]Flare3D,[43]Starling,.[44]:vii Professional game engines like Unreal Engine[45][46] and Unity also export Flash versions which use Stage3D to render 3D graphics.

Flash Video[edit]

Virtually all browser plugins for video are free of charge and cross-platform, including Adobe's offering of Flash Video, which was first introduced with Flash version 6. Flash Video has been a popular choice for websites due to the large installed user base and programmability of Flash. In 2010, Apple publicly criticized Adobe Flash, including its implementation of video playback for not taking advantage of hardware acceleration, one reason Flash is not to be found on Apple's mobile devices. Soon after Apple's criticism, Adobe demoed and released a beta version of Flash 10.1, which takes advantage of GPU hardware acceleration even on a Mac. Flash 10.2 beta, released December 2010, adds hardware acceleration for the whole video rendering pipeline.

Flash Player supports two distinct modes of video playback, and hardware accelerated video decoding may not be used for older video content. Such content causes excessive CPU usage compared to comparable content played with other players.

  • Software Rendered Video : Flash Player supports software rendered video since version 6. Such video supports vector animations displayed above the video content. This obligation may, depending on graphic APIs exposed by the operating system, prohibit using a video overlay, like a traditional multimedia player would use, with the consequence that color space conversion and scaling must happen in software.[47]
  • Hardware Accelerated Video : Flash Player supports hardware accelerated video playback since version 10.2, for H.264, F4V, and FLV video formats. Such video is displayed above all Flash content, and takes advantage of video codec chipsets installed on the user's device. Developers must specifically use the "StageVideo" technology within Flash Player in order for hardware decoding to be enabled. Flash Player internally uses technologies such as DirectX Video Acceleration and OpenGL to do so.

In tests done by Ars Technica in 2008 and 2009, Adobe Flash Player performed better on Windows than Mac OS X and Linux with the same hardware.[48][49] Performance has later improved for the latter two, on Mac OS X with Flash Player 10.1,[50] and on Linux with Flash Player 11.[51]

Flash Audio[edit]

Flash Audio is most commonly encoded in MP3 or AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) however it can also use ADPCM, Nellymoser (Nellymoser Asao Codec) and Speex audio codecs. Flash allows sample rates of 11, 22 and 44.1 kHz. It cannot have 48 kHz audio sample rate, which is the standard TV and DVD sample rate.

On August 20, 2007, Adobe announced on its blog that with Update 3 of Flash Player 9, Flash Video will also implement some parts of the MPEG-4 international standards.[52] Specifically, Flash Player will work with video compressed in H.264 (MPEG-4 Part 10), audio compressed using AAC (MPEG-4 Part 3), the F4V, MP4 (MPEG-4 Part 14), M4V, M4A, 3GP and MOV multimedia container formats, 3GPP Timed Text specification (MPEG-4 Part 17), which is a standardized subtitle format and partial parsing capability for the 'ilst' atom, which is the ID3 equivalent iTunes uses to store metadata. MPEG-4 Part 2 and H.263 will not work in F4V file format. Adobe also announced that it will be gradually moving away from the FLV format to the standard ISO base media file format (MPEG-4 Part 12) owing to functional limits with the FLV structure when streaming H.264. The final release of the Flash Player implementing some parts of MPEG-4 standards had become available in Fall 2007.[53]

Adobe Flash Player 10.1 does not have acoustic echo cancellation, unlike the VoIP offerings of Skype and Google Voice, making this and earlier versions of Flash less suitable for group calling or meetings. Flash Player 10.3 Beta incorporates acoustic echo cancellation.

Scripting language[edit]

ActionScript is the programming language used by Flash. It is an enhanced superset of the ECMAScript programming language, with a classical Java-style class model, rather than JavaScript's prototype model.


In October 1998, Macromedia disclosed the Flash Version 3 Specification on its website. It did this in response to many new and often semi-open formats competing with SWF, such as Xara's Flare and Sharp's Extended Vector Animation formats. Several developers quickly created a C library for producing SWF. In February 1999, MorphInk 99 was introduced, the first third-party program to create SWF files. Macromedia also hired Middlesoft to create a freely available developers' kit for the SWF file format versions 3 to 5.

Macromedia made the Flash Files specifications for versions 6 and later available only under a non-disclosure agreement, but they are widely available from various sites.

In April 2006, the Flash SWF file format specification was released with details on the then newest version format (Flash 8). Although still lacking specific information on the incorporated video compression formats (On2, Sorenson Spark, etc.), this new documentation covered all the new features offered in Flash v8 including new ActionScript commands, expressive filter controls, and so on. The file format specification document is offered only to developers who agree to a license agreement that permits them to use the specifications only to develop programs that can export to the Flash file format. The license does not allow the use of the specifications to create programs that can be used for playback of Flash files. The Flash 9 specification was made available under similar restrictions.[54]

In June 2009, Adobe launched the Open Screen Project (Adobe link), which made the SWF specification available without restrictions. Previously, developers could not use the specification for making SWF-compatible players, but only for making SWF-exporting authoring software. The specification still omits information on codecs such as Sorenson Spark, however.[55]

Animation tools[edit]

Official tools[edit]

The Adobe Animate authoring program is primarily used to design graphics and animation and publish the same for websites, web applications, and video games. The program also offers limited support for audio and video embedding, and ActionScript scripting.

Adobe released Adobe LiveMotion, designed to create interactive animation content and export it to a variety of formats, including SWF. LiveMotion failed to gain any notable user base.[specify]

In February 2003, Macromedia purchased Presedia, which had developed a Flash authoring tool that automatically converted PowerPoint files into Flash. Macromedia subsequently released the new product as Breeze, which included many new enhancements.

Third-party tools[edit]

Various free and commercial software packages can output animations into the Flash SWF format, suitable for display on the web, including:

The Flash 4 Linux project was an initiative to develop an open source Linux application as an alternative to Adobe Animate. Development plans included authoring capacity for 2D animation, and tweening, as well as outputing SWF file formats. F4L evolved into an editor that was capable of authoring 2D animation and publishing of SWF files. Flash 4 Linux was renamed UIRA. UIRA intended to combine the resources and knowledge of the F4L project and the Qflash project, both of which were Open Source applications that aimed to provide an alternative to the proprietary Adobe Flash.

Programming tools[edit]

Official tools[edit]

Adobe provides a series of tools to develop software applications and video games for Flash:

Third-party tools[edit]

Third-party development tools have been created to assist developers in creating software applications and video games with Flash.

  • FlashDevelop is a free and open-source Flash ActionScript IDE, which includes a project manager and debugger for building applications on Flash Player and Adobe AIR.
  • Powerflasher FDT is a commercial ActionScript IDE similar to FlashDevelop.
  • Haxe is an open source, high-level object-oriented programming language geared towards web-content creation that can compile SWF files from Haxe programs. As of 2012, Haxe can build programs for Flash Player that perform faster than the same application built with the Adobe Flex SDK compiler, due to additional compiler optimizations supported in Haxe.[56][unreliable source?]
  • SWFTools (specifically, swfc) is an open-source ActionScript 3.0 compiler which generates SWF files from script files, which includes SVG tags.
  • swfmill and MTASC also provide tools to create SWF files by compiling text, ActionScript or XML files into Flash animations
  • Ming library, to create SWF files programmatically, has interfaces for C, PHP, C++, Perl, Python, and Ruby. It is able to import and export graphics from XML into SWF.



Adobe Flash Player is the multimedia and application player originally developed by Macromedia and acquired by Adobe Systems. It plays SWF files, which can be created by Adobe Animate, Apache Flex, or a number of other Adobe Systems and 3rd party tools. It has support for a scripting language called ActionScript, which can be used to display Flash Video from an SWF file.

Scaleform GFx is a commercial alternative Flash player that features fully hardware-accelerated 2D graphics rendering using the GPU. Scaleform has high conformance with both Flash 10 ActionScript 3[57] and Flash 8 ActionScript 2. Scaleform GFx is a game development middleware solution that helps create graphical user interfaces or HUDs within 3D video games. It does not work with web browsers.

IrfanView, an image viewer, uses Flash Player to display SWF files.

Open source[edit]

Lightspark is a free and open source SWF player that supports most of ActionScript 3.0 and has a Mozilla-compatible plug-in.[58] It will fall back on Gnash, a free SWF player supporting ActionScript 1.0 and 2.0 (AVM1) code. Lightspark supports OpenGL-based rendering for 3D content. The player is also compatible with H.264 Flash videos on YouTube.

Gnash aims to create a software player and browser plugin replacement for the Adobe Flash Player. Gnash can play SWF files up to version 7, and 80% of ActionScript 2.0.[59] Gnash run on Windows, Linux and other platforms for the 32-bit, 64-bit, and other operating systems, but development has slowed significantly in recent years.

Shumway was an open source Flash Player released by Mozilla in November 2012. It was built in JavaScript and is thus compatible with modern web-browsers.[60][61][62] In early October 2013, Shumway was included by default in the Firefox nightly branch.[63] Shumway rendered Flash contents by translating contents inside Flash files to HTML5 elements, and running an ActionScript interpreter in JavaScript.[64] It supported both AVM1 and AVM2, and ActionScript versions 1, 2, and 3.[65] Development of Shumway ceased in early 2016.[66]

Adobe Flash Player cannot ship as part of a pure open source, or completely free operating system, as its distribution is bound to the Macromedia Licensing Program and subject to proposition first from Adobe.[67]


Desktop computers[edit]

Flash Player[edit]

The latest version of Adobe Flash Player is available for three major desktop platforms, including Windows, macOS and Linux.[68] On Linux the PPAPI plug-in is available; the NPAPI version wasn't updated to new major versions for a while[69] until Adobe changed its mind on stopping support and its former plan to discontinue "in 2017".[70]

Adobe Flash Player is available in four flavors:

  • ActiveX-based Plug-in
  • NPAPI-based Plug-in
  • PPAPI-based Plug-in
  • Projector

The ActiveX version is an ActiveX control for use in Internet Explorer and any other Windows applications that supports ActiveX technology. The Plug-in versions are available for browsers supporting either NPAPI or PPAPI plug-ins on Microsoft Windows, macOS and Linux. The projector version is a standalone player that can open SWF files directly.[71]

The following table documents Flash Player and Adobe AIR support on desktop operating systems:

Operating System Prerequisites Usage Latest Adobe Flash Player Browser Support
Microsoft Windows Windows XP (32-bit, AIR only) / Vista (32-bit, AIR only) / 7 / 8.1 / 10[68][72] Internet Browser, Standalone Applications Flash Player 25.0,[73] AIR 25.0[74] Internet Explorer, Edge, Firefox, Chrome, Chromium, Opera
macOS OS X 10.9 or newer (Flash Player)[68] / Mac OS X 10.7 or newer (AIR)[72] Internet Browser, Standalone Applications Flash Player 25.0,[73] AIR 25.0[74] Safari, Firefox, Chrome, Chromium, Opera
Linux Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.6 or newer / openSUSE 11.3 or newer / Ubuntu 10.04 or newer[68] Internet Browser Flash Player (NPAPI), Flash Player (PPAPI)[73] Firefox (NPAPI) / Chrome, Chromium, Opera (PPAPI)
Adobe AIR[edit]

The latest version of Adobe AIR, version 18, contains Adobe Flash Player 18, and is available for Windows XP and later, as well as macOS.[75] Official support for desktop Linux distributions ceased in June 2011 with version 2.6.[76]

Mobile devices[edit]

Flash Player[edit]

Adobe Flash Player was available for a variety of mobile operating systems, including Android (between versions 2.2[83] and 4.0.4[84]), Pocket PC/Windows CE, QNX (e.g. on BlackBerry PlayBook), Symbian, Palm OS, and webOS (since version 2.0[85]). Flash Player for smart phones was made available to handset manufacturers at the end of 2009.[86]

However, in November 2011, Adobe announced the withdrawal of support for Flash Player on mobile devices.[87] Adobe continues to support deploying Flash-based content as mobile applications via Adobe AIR.

Adobe is reaffirming its commitment to "aggressively contribute" to HTML5.[88][89] Adobe announced the end of Flash for mobile platforms or TV, instead focusing on HTML5 for browser content and Adobe AIR for the various mobile application stores[90][91][92][93] and described it as "the beginning of the end".[94] BlackBerry LTD (formerly known as RIM) announced that it would continue to develop Flash Player for the PlayBook.[95]

There is no Adobe Flash Player for iOS devices (iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch). However, Flash content can be made to run on iOS devices in a variety of ways:

  • Flash content can be bundled inside an Adobe AIR app, which will then run on iOS devices. (Apple did not allow this for a while, but they relaxed those restrictions in September 2010.[96])
  • On March 8, 2011, Techradar reported that Adobe provides an experimental server side tool (Wallaby) to convert Flash programs (as far as possible) to HTML5 code, thus allowing iOS devices to display the content.[97]
  • If the content is Flash video being served by Adobe Flash Media Server 4.5, the server will translate and send the video as HTTP Dynamic Streaming or HTTP Live Streaming, both of which can be played by iOS devices.[98]
  • Some specialized mobile browsers manage to accommodate Flash via streaming content from the cloud directly to a user's device. Some examples are Photon Browser[99] and Puffin Web Browser.[100]

The mobile version of Internet Explorer for Windows Phone cannot play Flash content,[101] however Flash support is still present on the tablet version of Windows.[102]

Adobe AIR[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2016)

Adobe AIR was released in 2008, and allows the creation of mobile applications and mobile games using Flash and ActionScript. Notable mobile games built with Flash include Angry Birds, Machinarium and Defend Your Castle.

Using AIR, developers can access the full Adobe Flash functionality, including text, vector graphics, raster graphics, video, audio, camera and microphone capability. Adobe AIR also includes additional features such as file system integration, native client extensions, desktop integration and access to connected devices and sensors.

AIR applications can be published as native phone applications on certain mobile operating systems, such as Android (ARM Cortex-A8 and above[103]) and Apple iOS.[75]

The following table explains to what extent Adobe AIR can run on various mobile operating systems:

Operating System Prerequisites Latest Adobe Flash Player AIR Framework
Android Android 2.3+, ARM Cortex-A8+[104] or Android x86[105] AIR (uses Flash Player 11.6)[106] Option 1: The AIR player can be embedded as a 'captive' runtime, which increases APK size but makes the application standalone.[107]

Option 2: The runtime is not included with the app, and must installed as a separate app from the app market.[108]

Apple iOS iOS 4.3 or later AIR (uses Flash Player 11.6)[106] Not applicable: each app includes its own 'captive' runtime.[109]
BlackBerry Tablet OS None AIR 3.1 (uses Flash Player 11.1)[110][111] Already pre-installed on each device.[109]
BlackBerry 10 Blackberry 10.2 and lower (no longer supported from 10.3)[112] AIR 3.5 (uses Flash Player 11.1) Already pre-installed on each device.

Portable electronic devices[edit]

Adobe Flash Lite is a lightweight version of Adobe Flash Player intended for mobile phones[113] and other portable electronic devices like Chumby and iRiver.

On the emerging single-board enthusiast market, as substantially popularized by the Raspberry Pi, support from Adobe is lacking. However, the open-source player Gnash has been ported and found to be useful.[114]

Open Screen Project[edit]

On May 1, 2008, Adobe announced the Open Screen Project, with the intent of providing a consistent application interface across devices such as personal computers, mobile devices, and consumer electronics.[115] When the project was announced, seven goals were outlined: the abolition of licensing fees for Adobe Flash Player and Adobe Integrated Runtime, the removal of restrictions on the use of the Shockwave Flash (SWF) and Flash Video (FLV) file formats, the publishing of application programming interfaces for porting Flash to new devices, and the publishing of The Flash Cast protocol and Action Message Format (AMF), which let Flash applications receive information from remote databases.[115]

As of February 2009[update], the specifications removing the restrictions on the use of SWF and FLV/F4V specs have been published.[116] The Flash Cast protocol—now known as the Mobile Content Delivery Protocol—and AMF protocols have also been made available,[116] with AMF available as an open source implementation, BlazeDS.

The list of mobile device providers who have joined the project includes Palm, Motorola, and Nokia,[117] who, together with Adobe, have announced a $10 million Open Screen Project fund.[118] As of 2012[update], the Open Screen Project is no longer accepting new applications according to partner BSQuare. However paid licensing is still an option for device makers who want to use Adobe software.[citation needed]

Mobile support[edit]

Websites built with Adobe Flash will not function on most modern mobile devices running Google Android or iOS (iPhone, iPad). The only alternative is using HTML5 and responsive web design to build websites that support both desktop and mobile devices.

However, Flash is still used to build mobile games using Adobe AIR. Such games will not work in mobile web browsers, but must be installed via the appropriate app store.



HTML5 is often cited as an alternative to Adobe Flash technology usage on web pages. Adobe released a tool that converts Flash to HTML5,[119] and in June 2011, Google released an experimental tool that does the same.[120][121] In January 2015, YouTube defaulted to HTML5 players to better support more devices.[122]


Vendor dependence[edit]

The reliance on Adobe for decoding Flash makes its use on the World Wide Web a concern—the completeness of its public specifications are debated, and no complete implementation of Flash is publicly available in source code form with a license that permits reuse. Generally, public specifications are what makes a format re-implementable (see future proofing data storage), and reusable codebases can be ported to new platforms without the endorsement of the format creator.

Adobe's restrictions on the use of the SWF/FLV specifications were lifted in February 2009 (see Adobe's Open Screen Project). However, despite efforts of projects like Gnash, Swfdec and Lightspark, a complete free Flash player is yet to be seen, as of September 2011. For example, Gnash cannot use SWF v10 yet.[123] Notably, Gnash was listed on the Free Software Foundation's high priority list, from at least 2007, to its overdue removal in January 2017.[124]

Notable advocates of free software, open standards, and the World Wide Web have warned against the use of Flash:

The founder of Mozilla Europe, Tristan Nitot, stated in 2008:[125]

Companies building websites should beware of proprietary rich-media technologies like Adobe's Flash and Microsoft's Silverlight. (...) You're producing content for your users and there's someone in the middle deciding whether users should see your content.

Representing open standards, inventor of CSS and co-author of HTML5, Håkon Wium Lie explained in a Google tech talk of 2007, entitled "the <video> element", the proposal of Theora as the format for HTML5 video:[126]

I believe very strongly, that we need to agree on some kind of baseline video format if [the video element] is going to succeed. Flash is today the baseline format on the web. The problem with Flash is that it's not an open standard.

Representing the free software movement, Richard Stallman stated in a speech in 2004 that:[127] "The use of Flash in websites is a major problem for our community."


Usability consultant Jakob Nielsen published an Alertbox in 2000 entitled, Flash: 99% Bad, stating that "Flash tends to degrade websites for three reasons: it encourages design abuse, it breaks with the Web's fundamental interaction principles, and it distracts attention from the site's core value."[128] Some problems have been at least partially fixed since Nielsen's complaints: Text size can be controlled using full page zoom and it has been possible for authors to include alternative text in Flash since Flash Player 6.

Flash blocking in web browsers[edit]

Some websites rely heavily on Flash and become unusable without Flash Player, or with Flash blocked.

Flash content is usually embedded using the object or embed HTML element.[129] A web browser that does not fully implement one of these elements displays the replacement text, if supplied by the web page. Often, a plugin is required for the browser to fully implement these elements, though some users cannot or will not install it.

Since Flash can be used to produce content (such as advertisements) that some users find obnoxious or take a large amount of bandwidth to download, some web browsers, by default, do not play Flash content until the user clicks on it, e.g. Konqueror, K-Meleon.

Most current browsers have a feature to block plugins, playing one only when the user clicks it. Opera versions since 10.5 feature native Flash blocking. Opera Turbo requires the user to click to play Flash content, and the browser also allows the user to enable this option permanently. Both Chrome[130] and Firefox[131] have an option to enable "click to play plugins". Equivalent "Flash blocker" extensions are also available for many popular browsers: Firefox has Flashblock and NoScript, Internet Explorer has Foxie, which contains a number of features, one of them named Flashblock. WebKit-based browsers under macOS, such as Apple's Safari, have ClickToFlash.[132] In June 2015, Google announced that Chrome will "pause" advertisements and "non-central" Flash content by default.[133]

Firefox (from version 46) rewrites old Flash-only YouTube embed code into YouTube's modern embedded player that is capable of using either HTML5 or Flash.[134] Such embed code is used by non-YouTube sites to embed YouTube's videos, and can still be encountered, for example, on old blogs and forums.


For many years Adobe Flash Player's security record[135] has led many security experts to recommend against installing the player, or to block Flash content.[136][137] The US-CERT has recommended blocking Flash,[138] and security researcher Charlie Miller recommended "not to install Flash";[139] however, for people still using Flash, Intego recommended that users get trusted updates "only directly from the vendor that publishes them."[140] As of February 12, 2015, Adobe Flash Player has over 400 CVE entries,[141] of which over 300 lead to arbitrary code execution, and past vulnerabilities have enabled spying via web cameras.[142][143][144][145] Security experts have long predicted the demise of Flash, saying that with the rise of HTML5 "...the need for browser plugins such as Flash is diminishing",[146] as only 7 to 10 percent of websites still use it.[147][148]

Active moves by third parties to limit the risk began with Steve Jobs in 2010 saying that Apple would not allow Flash on the iPhone, iPod touch and iPad – citing abysmal security as one reason.[149] In July 2015, a series of newly discovered vulnerabilities resulted in Facebook's chief security officer, Alex Stamos, issuing a call to Adobe to discontinue the software entirely[150] and the Mozilla Firefox web browser, Google Chrome and Apple Safari to blacklist all earlier versions of Flash Player.[151][152][153][154]

As a result, "Adobe has essentially stopped trying to do anything new and innovative with Flash."[148]

Flash cookies[edit]

Like the HTTP cookie, a flash cookie (also known as a “Local Shared Object”) can be used to save application data. Flash cookies are not shared across domains. An August 2009 study by the Ashkan Soltani and a team of researchers at UC Berkeley found that 50% of websites using Flash were also employing flash cookies, yet privacy policies rarely disclosed them, and user controls for privacy preferences were lacking.[155] Most browsers' cache and history suppress or delete functions did not affect Flash Player's writing Local Shared Objects to its own cache in version 10.2 and earlier, at which point the user community was much less aware of the existence and function of Flash cookies than HTTP cookies.[156] Thus, users with those versions, having deleted HTTP cookies and purged browser history files and caches, may believe that they have purged all tracking data from their computers when in fact Flash browsing history remains. Adobe's own Flash Website Storage Settings panel, a submenu of Adobe's Flash Settings Manager web application, and other editors and toolkits can manage settings for and delete Flash Local Shared Objects.[157]

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]


adobe flash player - The Full Wiki

Adobe Flash Player Developer(s) Initial release Stable release Preview release Operating system Platform Available in Type License Website
Adobe Systems (formerly by Macromedia)
1996  (Template:Release date and age) [+/−]
none  (n/a) [+/−]
Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris and Pocket PC
Web browsers
Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Spanish, Korean [1].
Interpreter, Media Player
Proprietary freeware EULA
Adobe Flash Player Homepage

The Adobe Flash Player is software for viewing animations and movies using computer programs such as a web browser; in common usage, Flash lets you put animation and movies on a web site. Flash player is a widely distributed proprietary multimedia and application player created by Macromedia and now developed and distributed by Adobe after its acquisition. Flash Player runs SWF files that can be created by the Adobe Flash authoring tool, by Adobe Flex or by a number of other Macromedia and third party tools.

Adobe Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both a multimedia authoring program and the Adobe Flash Player, written and distributed by Adobe, that uses vector and raster graphics, a native scripting language called ActionScript and bidirectional streaming of video and audio. Strictly speaking, Adobe Flash is the authoring environment and Flash Player is the virtual machine used to run the Flash files, but in colloquial language these have become mixed: "Flash" can mean either the authoring environment, the player, or the application files.

Flash Player has support for an embedded scripting language called ActionScript (AS), which is based on ECMAScript. Since its inception, ActionScript has matured from a script syntax without variables to one that supports object-oriented code, and may now be compared in capability to JavaScript (another ECMAScript-based scripting language).

The Flash Player was originally designed to display 2-dimensional vector animation, but has since become suitable for creating rich Internet applications and streaming video and audio. It uses vector graphics to minimize file size and create files that save bandwidth and loading time. Flash is a common format for games, animations, and GUIs embedded into web pages.

The Flash Player is built into some browsers[which?] and is available as a plugin for recent versions of other browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Safari and Internet Explorer) on selected platforms. Adobe states that each version of the plugin is backwards-compatible, with the exception of security changes introduced in Version 10.[2]

Supported platforms

The latest version of Flash Player, Version 10, is available for Windows (2000 and newer, Win9x no longer supported), Linux, Solaris and Mac OS X. Version 9 is the most recent official version currently available for the Linux/ARM-based Nokia 770/N800/N810 Internet Tablets running Maemo OS2008, classic Mac OS, Pocket PC and Windows 95/NT.[3][4] HP offers Version 6 of the player for HP-UX.[5] Other versions of the player have been available at some point for OS/2, Symbian OS, Palm OS, BeOS and IRIX.[6] The Kodak Easyshare One includes Flash Play. The Flash Player SDK was used to develop its on-screen menus, which are rendered and displayed using the included Flash Player.[7] Among other devices, LeapFrog Enterprises provides Flash Player with their Leapster Multimedia Learning System and extended the Flash Player with touch-screen support.[8]Sony has integrated Flash Player 6 into the PlayStation Portable's web browser via firmware version 2.70 and Flash Player 9 into the PlayStation 3's web browser in firmware version 2.50[9]. Nintendo has integrated Flash Player 7 in the Internet Channel on the Wii.

No official x86-64 editions of the Flash player are currently available for any platform,[10] due to the x86-32-specific garbage collector and just-in-time compilation engine.[11] Adobe engineers have stated that 64-bit editions for all supported platforms are in development. They have been developing since 2005 a x64 edition of the Flash Player. In 17 November 2008, Adobe released an alpha version of Flash Player 10 for x86-64 Linux. They have stated that alpha releases for Mac and Windows will come in future pre releases.[12] Adobe said it will optimize Flash for use on ARM architecture (ARMv6 and ARMv7 architectures used in the ARM11 family and the Cortex-A series of processors) and release it in the second half of 2009. The company also stated it wants to enable Flash on NVIDIA Tegra, Texas Instruments OMAP 3 and Samsung ARMs.[13][14] Beginning 2009, it was announced that Adobe would be bringing Flash to TV sets via Intel Media Processor CE 3100 before mid-2009.[15] Later on, ARM Holdings said it welcomes the move of Flash, because "it will transform mobile applications and it removes the claim that the desktop controls the Internet."[16] However, as of May 2009, the expected ARM/Linux netbook devices had poor support for Web video and fragmented software base.[17]

Although SWF has recently become an open format again, Adobe has not been willing to make complete source code available for free software development. The source code for the ActionScript Virtual Machine has been released as a project named Tamarin[18] under the terms of an MPL/GPL/LGPL tri-license. It includes the specification for the ActionScript byte code format. This project is jointly managed by Mozilla and Adobe. The full specification of the SWF format is available without restriction by Adobe. The principal alternative free software player, gnash, is quite incomplete at this time, however since SWF is now an open format, it should have a much higher quality going forward as developers implement the official SWF specifications.

Mobile operating systems

Following table shows Flash Player support for mobile operating systems.

Internet Privacy/Persistent Identification Elements

Flash Player is an application that, while running on a computer that is connected to the Internet, is designed to contemporaneously interact with websites containing Flash content that are being visited online. As such, under certain configurations the application has the potential to silently compromise its users' internet privacy, and do so without their knowledge. By default, Flash Player is configured to permit small, otherwise invisible "tracking" files, known as Persistent Identification Elements (PIEs)[24] or Local Shared Object files, to be stored on the hard drive of a user's computer. Sent in the background over the internet from websites to which a user is connected, these files work much the way "cookies" do with internet browsers. When stored on a user's computer, PIE (.sol) files are capable of sending personally sensitive data back out over the internet without the user's knowledge to one or more third parties. In addition, Flash Player is also capable of accessing and retrieving audio and video data from any microphone and/or webcams that might be either built in or connected to a user's computer and transmitting it in realtime over the internet (also potentially without the user's knowledge) to one or more third parties.

While these capabilities can all be affirmatively blocked and/or disabled by the user, the Flash Player application does not provide an internally accessible "preferences" panel to accomplish this. Instead access to the various settings panels necessary to manage the application's "Privacy," "Storage," "Security," and "Notifications" settings can be achieved through a web-based "Settings Manager" page located on the "support" section of the Adobe.com website, or by third party tools (see Local Shared Object). Each of the functions can be enabled/disabled either "globally" to cover all websites, or set differently for individual websites depending on how the user desires Flash Player to be able to interact with each one.

Although Flash Control Panel Settings in theory allow users to protect their privacy it should be remembered that suitably crafted Visual Basic Script or similar code can overwrite any user defined settings before the Flash Player Plug-in is called by a webpage.

In addition to cookies, many banks and other financial institutions also routinely install Persistent Identification Elements using Flash Player on users' hard drives when they establish and access their accounts, as do other interactive sites such as YouTube.


This article may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may contain suggestions. (July 2009)
  • Macromedia Flash Player 2 (1997)
    • First version under Macromedia brand
    • Mostly vectors and motion, some bitmaps, limited audio
    • Support of stereo sound, enhanced bitmap integration, buttons, the Library, and the capability to tween color changes.
  • Macromedia Flash Player 3 (1998)
    • Added alpha transparency, licensed MP3 compression
    • Brought improvements to animation, playback, and publishing, as well as the introduction of simple script commands for interactivity.
    • As of 1998, Macromedia has shipped 100,000 Flash products.
  • Macromedia Flash Player 4 (May 1999)
    • Achieved 100 million installations of the Flash Player, thanks in part to its inclusion with Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.
    • Saw the introduction of streaming MP3s and the Motion Tween. Initially, the Flash Player plug-in was not bundled with popular web browsers and users had to visit Macromedia website to download it; As of 2000, however, the Flash Player was already being distributed with all AOL, Netscape and Internet Explorer browsers. Two years later it shipped with all releases of Windows XP. The install-base of the Flash Player reached 92 percent of all Internet users.
  • Macromedia Flash Player 5 (August 2000)
    • A major leap forward in capability, with the evolution of Flash's scripting capabilities as released as ActionScript.
    • Saw the ability to customize the authoring environment's interface.
    • Macromedia Generator was the first initiative from Macromedia to separate design from content in Flash files. Generator 2.0 was released in April 2001 and featured real-time server-side generation of Flash content in its Enterprise Edition. Generator was discontinued in 2002 in favor of new technologies such as Flash Remoting, which allows for seamless transmission of data between the server and the client, and ColdFusion Server.
    • In October 2000, usability guru Jakob Nielsen wrote a polemic article regarding usability of Flash content entitled "Flash 99% Bad". (Macromedia later hired Nielsen to help them improve Flash usability.)
  • Macromedia Flash Player 6 (version, codenamed Exorcist) (March 2002)
    • Support for the consuming Flash Remoting (AMF) and Web Service (SOAP)
    • supports ondemand/live audio and video streaming (RTMP)
    • Support for screenreaders via Microsoft Active Accessibility
    • Added Sorenson Spark video codec for Flash Video
    • Support for video, application components, shared libraries, and accessibility.
    • Macromedia Flash Communication Server MX, also released in 2002, allowed video to be streamed to Flash Player 6 (otherwise the video could be embedded into the Flash movie).
  • Macromedia Flash Player 7 (version, codenamed Mojo) (September 2003)
    • Supports progressive audio and video streaming (HTTP)
    • Supports ActionScript 2.0, an Object-Oriented Programming Language for developers
    • Ability to create charts, graphs and additional text effects with the new support for extensions (sold separately), high fidelity import of PDF and Adobe Illustrator 10 files, mobile and device development and a forms-based development environment. ActionScript 2.0 was also introduced, giving developers a formal Object-Oriented approach to ActionScript. V2 Components replaced Flash MX's components, being rewritten from the ground up to take advantage of ActionScript 2.0 and Object-Oriented principles.
    • In 2004, the "Flash Platform" was introduced. This expanded Flash to more than the Flash authoring tool. Flex 1.0 and Breeze 1.0 were released, both of which utilized the Flash Player as a delivery method but relied on tools other than the Flash authoring program to create Flash applications and presentations. Flash Lite 1.1 was also released, enabling mobile phones to play Flash content.
  • Macromedia Flash Player 8 (version, codenamed Maelstrom) (August 2005)
    • Support for runtime loading of GIF and PNG images
    • New video codec (On2 VP6)
    • Improved runtime performance and runtime bitmap caching
    • Live filters and blendmodes
    • File upload and download capabilities
    • New text-rendering engine, the Saffron Type System
    • On December 3, 2005, Adobe Systems acquired Macromedia and its product portfolio (including Flash).[25]
  • Adobe Flash Player 9 (version, codenamed Zaphod) (June 2006) previously named Flash Player 8.5
    • New ECMAScript scripting engine, ActionScript Virtual Machine AVM2. AVM1 retained for compatibility.
    • Actionscript 3 via AVM2.
    • E4X, which is a new approach to parsing XML.
    • Support for binary sockets.
    • Support for Regular Expressions and namespaces.
    • ECMAScript 4 virtual machine donated to Mozilla Foundation and named Tamarin.
  • Adobe Flash Player 9 Update 1 (version, codenamed Marvin) (November 2006[26])
    • Support for full-screen mode.[27]
  • Adobe Flash Player 9 Update 2 (version Mac/Windows and Linux, codenamed Hotblack) (July 2007)
  • Adobe Flash Player 9 Update 3 (version, codenamed Moviestar or Frogstar) (December 2007)[28]
    • H.264
    • AAC (HE-AAC, AAC Main Profile, and AAC-LC)
    • ISO Base Media File Format (MPEG-4 Part 12)
  • Adobe Flash Player 9 (version, codenamed Vogon) (April 2008)
  • Adobe Flash Player 9 (version (November 2008)
    • Critical security updates
  • Adobe Flash Player 9 (version, codenamed Nemo) (February 2009)
    • Critical security updates
  • Adobe Flash Player 10 (version, codenamed Astro) (October 2008)
    • New Features
    • Enhanced Features
      • Larger bitmap support
      • Graphics drawing API
      • Context menu
      • Hardware acceleration
      • Anti-aliasing engine (Saffron 3.1)
      • Read/write clipboard access
      • WMODE
  • Adobe Flash Player 10 (version, codenamed Nemo) (February 2009)
    • Critical security updates

See also

Adobe Flash Player


References and notes

External links


Flash | Русскоязычная документация по Ubuntu

В Linux существует несколько реализаций проигрывателей Flash-роликов. Рекомендуемый вариант – Adobe Flash Player. Остальные реализации стоит использовать только в том случае, если по какой-либо причине вас не устраивает разработанный компанией Adobe плагин.

Установка из репозитория

Для того, чтобы установить Adobe Flash Player выполните в терминале:

sudo apt-get install adobe-flashplugin

для Ubuntu 15.10 и 16.04:

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-installer Веб-браузер Google Chrome включает в себя плагин для воспроизведения Flash. Если вы не планируете использовать другие веб-браузеры, то устанавливать Adobe Flash Player не нужно.

Для воспроизведения защищенной трансляции drm например просмотр 1го канала http://stream.1tv.ru/live/ в firefox в 15.04 можно установив библиотеки :

PepperFlash версия плагина, которая распространяется в Google Chrome, не поддерживает DRM. Используйте в этом случае другие браузеры.

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mjblenner/ppa-hal sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install hal

источник решения http://www.omgubuntu.co.uk/2013/10/fixing-amazon-prime-streaming-drm-protected-flash-13-10

Установка вручную

Если по какой то причине вы не хотите устанавливать пакет adobe-flashplugin с Adobe Flash Player, вы можете совершить установку вручную. Для этого загрузите архив по ссылке (версия .tar.gz) в домашний каталог. После этого распакуйте содержимое архива в папку с плагинами браузеров. Для этого выполните следующие команды в Терминале:

sudo tar xvzf install_flash_player_11_linux.i386.tar.gz -C /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins sudo rm -r /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/usr

За работу Adobe Flash Player отвечает файл /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/libflashplayer.so. Он будет обнаружен вашим браузером при следующем запуске.


Для установленного из репозитория:

sudo apt-get remove adobe-flashplugin

Для установленного вручную:

sudo rm /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/libflashplayer.so


Gnash (слово образовано от GNU и Flash) — проект, нацеленный на создание свободного плеера и плагина для браузера для формата Adobe Flash и замену несвободных программ в нише, занимаемой сейчас Adobe Flash Player. Он создан на основе проекта GPLFlash. Gnash выпущен под лицензией GPL программистом John Gilmore. Сейчас главный разработчик — Роб Савой.


Используя терминал:

sudo apt-get install gnash mozilla-plugin-gnash


Lightspark — свободный SWF-проигрыватель с открытым исходным кодом, основанный на Gnash. Поддерживает основанный на OpenGL рендеринг и основанный на LLVM запуск ActionScript. Так же поддерживает большую часть ActionScript 3.0 и имеет Mozilla-совместимый плагин.. Является свободным программным обеспечением, и распространяется на условиях лицензии LGPL. Lightspark совместим с H.264 Flash-видео на YouTube. Поддерживает Mozilla Firefox и Google Chrome. Проект развивается при поддержке GNOME Foundation.


Последовательно выполните в терминале команды:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:sparkers/ppa sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install lightspark browser-plugin-lightspark


Swfdec — свободный проигрыватель файлов формата Adobe Flash; распространяется под лицензией GNU LGPL. Swfdec состоит из библиотеки для проигрывания flash-файлов и плагина для браузеров, поддерживающих интерфейс NSplugin (Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Konqueror и т. д.). Существует и отдельный проигрыватель (swfdec-player) для просмотра flash-файлов без браузера. Swfdec поддерживает flash-файлы от четвёртой до девятой версии и способен проигрывать потоковое видео (YouTube, Google Video и т. д.). Swfdec использует cairo для отрисовки графики, GStreamer для аудио и видео кодеков, и выводит звук непосредственно через PulseAudio, Alsa или OSS1).



Pepper-flash — flash-плагин, входящий в состав проприетарного браузера Google Chrome. Поскольку в основе кодовой базы браузера от Google лежит проект Chromium, то использование описываемого плагина доступно и в браузере Chromium. Впрочем, из-за закрытости проекта, использование плагина невозможно, с лицензионной точки зрения, без установки браузера Google Chrome. Для того, чтобы задействовать Pepper-flash плагин в браузере Chromium нужно добавить следующий код в файл ~/.profile

export PEPPER_FLASH_VERSION=$(grep '"version":' /opt/google/chrome/PepperFlash/manifest.json| grep -Po '(?<=version": ")(?:\d|\.)*')   export CHROMIUM_USER_FLAGS="--disable-new-tab-first-run --enable-user-scripts --ppapi-flash-path=/opt/google/chrome/PepperFlash/libpepflashplayer.so --ppapi-flash-version=$PEPPER_FLASH_VERSION"


Using the Adobe Flash Projector - the RotMG Wiki

This page will help you play RotMG with the stand-alone version of Adobe Flash Player, which is a program called “Adobe Flash Projector”. Using the flash projector to play reduces lag because Web Browsers may have performance issues with RotMG.. A video tutorial can be followed along with this post here.

Kongregate users will have to follow some additional instructions in order to play on the Flash Projector.

Please note that those who use steam to play RotMG and wish to use the standalone Adobe Flash projector must contact Deca Support to link their Steam account to a web account. Please note you will need to know the answers to the Three Security Questions that were set for your account when prompted previously in-game. Once you have your Steam Account linked to a Web Account, you can follow the normal steps below.

1: Download and install the Adobe Flash projector

Go to the Adobe support website and find the operating system you are using (Windows, Macintosh, or Linux), and click the “Download the Flash Player projector” link for the Operating System you are using. For Windows machines, the file needs no installation; once clicking the projector file, the projector will open. For Macintosh or Linux machines, Follow the instructions on-screen once opening the installation file to install the software.

While other Flash projectors exist, there is no guarantee that they work or are safe. If someone links you to a projector and the link is pointing anywhere other than a page on adobe.com, you should not click the link and can assume they are attempting to have you install malicious software.

2: Find the current location of RotMG

For a link which auto-updates and downloads the current release, use the following:


If you use this, the only time you will have to update the URL is if the site goes down.

Alternatively, you may use a direct link to the AssembleeGameClient file; this will not auto-update, and will need to be changed with each release.

For the current release X.18.0, the link you need is: https://realmofthemadgodhrd.appspot.com/AssembleeGameClient1509045497.swf

If the SWF file doesn’t automatically download, right-click on the game, and click “Download” from the list.

If this link or the link you are currently using stops working, you need to find the new active link to the game. To do so, follow these instructions:

  • Click this link and copy the string of numbers.
  • In the following URL replace “code from previous link here” with the number string.

https://realmofthemadgodhrd.appspot.com/AssembleeGameClientcode from previous link here.swf

Kongregate users will need to copy the link into a browser and then save it as an .swf file. More often than not, simply pressing Ctrl + s will open the browser’s save window.

(On Mac the easiest method is using Terminal.app. Lauch it and in the terminal window that opens type wget https://realmofthemadgodhrd.appspot.com/AssembleeGameClientcode from previous link here.swf and the file will be downloaded to the current directory, which is usually your home directory)

As we continue, the instructions are assuming that you are using Windows, and that a SWF is saved in a folder named “RotMG” in the C: drive.

3: Point your Flash projector to the game

Open your flash projector and in the top left corner click on “File” and then “Open”.

This will bring up a window asking you to provide either a URL or destination for a local file. Click the “Browse…” button, and select the SWF file from the “RotMG” file. The window will vary by Operating Sytem.

Press “OK” and the game should load.

If the projector just returns to an empty white screen after pressing OK, then you either gave it an invalid or outdated SWF file. Refer back to the previous step for instructions on finding the current link.

To access the game after you close it, just reopen projector and click File to see a list of recently opened files.

That’s it! Enjoy playing Realm of the Mad God!

Kongregate users should make sure that the Flash projector is able to open the .swf file that was saved in step 2.

After bringing up the “Open” window for the Flash projector. Click “Browse”

Find the saved .swf and open it. You should now be able to see the file path in the “Location” box. It should look like: C:\RotMG\a.swf

Copy and paste the file path to a text document. You will be adding more to it later.

Press OK in Flash Projector to run the client.

To solve the “d’oh, this isn’t good” error: Right click in the Flash projector window and select “Global Settings”. Click in the “Advanced” tab in the window that comes up and click on “Trusted Location Settings”. Add the folder that holds the saved .swf file as a trusted location.

Restart Flash Projector and reopen the swf. It should now show the main game screen.

Getting your Kongregate Account Information

Go to http://www.kongregate.com/games/Wild_Shadow/realm-of-the-mad-god and sign in to your Kongregate account.

You’ll have to get the link Kongregate uses to connect to the game. The address includes the phrase “DO_NOT_SHARE_THIS_LINK” for a reason. Anybody who has this link can log in to your Realm account, so be careful.

  • Chrome

    • Press F12 in Windows to open the developer tools console, or right click on the page and select “Inspect element”. The console should appear at the bottom of the Kongregate game page.
    • Select the tab at the top of the console titled “Sources”. You should see a box on the left (also titled “Sources”) which lists a number of site names. Near the bottom of that list “gameiframe” appears. Click on its arrow to expand it and reveal “realmofthemadgod.com”.
    • Expand “realmofthemadgod.com” and look for a line including the text: kongregate.html?DO_NOT_SHARE_THIS_LINK=1
    • Right click it and copy the link address.
  • Firefox

    • If using Firefox, Ctrl + Shift + K on Windows or Cmd + Opt + K on Mac (or right click on the page and select “Inspect element”) to pull up the developer console. Navigate to the tab at the top of the console titled “Debugger”.
    • You should see a box on the left titled “Sources”. Scroll to find “http://www.realmofthemadgod.com “. A line saying “kongregate.html” should be below it.
    • Right click on “kongregate.html” and copy the link address.

    • Another method for Firefox requires Firebug.

    • When Firebug is activated, click on the “CSS” tab of the window.
    • Click on “realm-of-the-mad-god” to open that dropdown menu and scoll to the bottom and look for the line: kongregate.html?DO_NOT_SHARE_THIS_LINK=1. Click on that line.
    • Open that dropdown menu again and there should be a check next to “kongregate.html?DO_NOT_SHARE_THIS_LINK=1”
    • Right click now and choose “Copy Location”
  • Safari

    • Enable the Develop menu (under ‘Advanced’ preferences) then launch the game on Kongregate.
    • Put it in Cinematic Mode (not essential, but it makes it much easier to find the information), then right-click on the black frame of the game window and choose ‘Inspect Element’.
    • This brings up the Web Inspector with the frame highlighted. Expand three times until you see the HTML body tag. Expand that and look for and copy the HTML containing the flashvars.
    • The flashvars is the string you need to create the URL. Take it and replace all the HTML ampersands (‘&’ then ‘amp’ then ‘;’) with real ampersands (‘&’) to get the string that goes after the ‘?’ in your personal URL.

Your personal URL

Your new direct link to the game can be used in a web browser, but not the Flash Projector. It’ll look something like:


It should look like a whole jumble of data, but all you need are these and the values that come after (connected with equals signs and seprated with ampersands):

kongregate_username kongregate_user_id kongregate_game_auth_token kongregate_api_path

Shorten the URL to:


Test it in a web browser to see if it works.

Using the link

In step 3 you should have copied the file path of the saved .swf file to a text document. It should look like so: C:\RotMG\a.swf

Replace http://www.realmofthemadgod.com/kongregate.html in the shortened address above with file:///filepath here (should end in .swf)

The URL is now ready to be used in Flash Projector. It should look something like this:


You’ll probably want to save this path somewhere once you get it working, but try to keep it secure!

You have to save the path because you’re forced to paste it in every time. Windows doesn’t like the long file name.

When the game updates, you’ll have to download the new .swf and fix the path if you saved the .swf with a different name. No need to change the Kongregate account info.

If you don’t want snoops seeing your account info through the recently opened files on projector, delete all the “RecentMovie” registry entries in HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Macromedia\Flash Player.

Realm in Linux

Edited from a forum post by Shalmii

Adobe does have a Flash Projector for Linux. After downloading it, unzipping the tarball, and running the Flash player program, you can come across the following error:

“Error while loading shared libraries – xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.so not found”. (the xxxxxxxxxxxxxx is just a filename )

As it turns out, the way that the 64-bit versions of Ubuntu are set up is such that the 32-bit libraries of various programs aren’t there, and are instead linked to 64-bit versions of libraries. This is all fine and good, except when a 32-bit program is programmed badly: to depend directly on the 32-bit library. Such was the case for Flash Projector.

The ia32-libs package is the one that is missing. The problem is that Ubuntu’s repositories for 64-bit distributions don’t have that package. It has similar packages, but Flash Projector demands that package.

The solution can be found on stackoverflow. Essentially, you to add the repositories for an older version of Ubuntu to the list of software sources, install the old ia32-libs package, remove the repositories, clean up, and install gcc-multilib for a few more libraries.

For an itemized tutorial:

  • Download the Linux Flash 11.2 Projector here: http://www.adobe.com/support/flashplayer/downloads.html
  • Extract the program ‘flashplayer’ from the tarball using your preferred method
    • In the terminal:
    • cd <download location>
    • tar -zxvf <tarball filename>
  • Try running ‘flashplayer’.
    • In the terminal:
    • cd <extraction location>
    • ./flashplayer
  • If it works, great.
  • If it doesn’t work, you’re likely getting a shared libraries error. Search the library online.
  • If the library you need is part of ia32-libs, follow these instructions: http://stackoverflow.com/a/23307732

Linux Launcher Icon

To get something like this

We’re going to have to make a .desktop file! This tutorial is for any X Window GUI interface, which covers the vast majority of normal users’ desktops.

While I’m assuming this is for Flash Projector and therefore Realm, I’m going to write in a manner that you can follow regardless of the program you’re using.

  • First, find or make an icon. You can use any image file, but .svg has the best scalability as a vector image format. .png also creates high quality icons, but they’re raster images not vector. Save this icon to /usr/share/icons. You will have to use super-user privileges, so save it somewhere else, then copy it with “sudo cp /path/to/icon /usr/share/icons”
  • Next, you’ll want to open up a text editor with super-user privileges. “sudo vi” works on nearly every system, opening up the ancient “vi” text editor. If you want something else, refer to your GUI’s manual for a sudo-like command that executes in the GUI (for the GNOME interface that I use, it’s “gksudo”, for KDE it’s “kdesu”, etc.)
  • Add the following to your file, and save it to /usr/share/applications as <name>.desktop

    [Desktop Entry] Type=Application Name=Name of the thing that is displayed outward. Exec=/path/to/thing/you're/executing Icon=/usr/share/icons/<name-of-icon-file.img>
  • This block of tags is metadata telling the system how to handle the thing, where to look for the thing, and how to display itself. The thing you’re executing does not need to be a program in and of itself. You could make it link to a .jar file, or a .sh bash script to start something up in a specific manner (like Minecraft running with a custom amount of allocated RAM)

  • Next, we need to make the new .desktop file executable. Do “sudo chmod +x /usr/share/applications/<name>.desktop” to add this property to the launcher.
  • That should be all you’d need to do. You can copy it to other locations (like ~/Desktop) to put it there.

Here’s what my launcher for Realm looks like:

[Desktop Entry] Version=18.0.2 Type=Application Terminal=false Exec=/opt/flash.sh Icon=/usr/share/icons/rotmg.png Name=Realm of the Mad God StartupNotify=true

This links to an icon of Oryx (the .png), and a simple bash script (the .sh)

#!/bin/bash cd $(dirname "$0") ./flashplayer http://realmeye.com/AGC

which opens up Flash Player (also in the /opt directory), grabs the latest AGC from Realmeye, and runs it.

Tips for playing

When you use Flash Projector in Windows, press Ctrl + Alt + Del (Ctrl + Shift + Esc in Windows 7) to open task manager, and set the priority of the projector to High. This should reduce lagspikes.

You can also use Flash Projector to see a bit more of the game at a time:

  • Open the game in Adobe Flash Projector
  • Make sure hardware acceleration is off
  • Set the zoom level to 100%
  • Set Flash Projector to display in full screen

This will allow you to see objects that are just slightly outside of the normal view.


Смотрите также